The Chemistry of Water


Table of Contents

Introduction: To the Student

Why Study Environmental Chemistry?

Laboratory Protocols


Chapter 1: Water Quality

Natural Constituents of Water

Regulation of Water Quality

Your Mission


Chapter 2: Sampling

Sampling Considerations

Field Work: Prelab Assignment

Laboratory Procedures: Sampling


Chapter 3: Field Measurements

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

Measurement of Dissolved Oxygen

Laboratory Procedures: Dissolved Oxygen

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

Laboratory Procedures: Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

Coliform Bacteria

Laboratory Procedures: Coliform Bacteria


Chapter 4: Acids and Bases

The Role of pH in Water Quality

Techniques for Measuring pH

Laboratory Procedures: Measurement of pH

The Role of Alkalinity in Water Quality

Laboratory Procedures: Measurement of Total Alkalinity


Chapter 5: Anions in Natural Waters

Nitrate and Phosphate: The Nutrient Anions

Sulfate: Geologically Available

Colorimetric Methods of Analysis

Laboratory Procedures: Nitrate, Phosphate, and Sulfate

Chloride and Fluoride: Simple Anions with an Important Message

Electrochemical Methods of Analysis

Laboratory Procedures: Chloride and Fluoride


Chapter 6: Ion Chromatography

Separation of Ions

Identification of Ions

Laboratory Procedures: Ion Chromatography


Chapter 7: Cations in Natural Waters

Calcium and Magnesium: Water Hardness

Determination of Water Hardness

Laboratory Procedures: Water Hardness

Sodium and Potassium

Laboratory Procedures: Total Cation Content


Chapter 8: Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

How Does AAS Work?

Laboratory Procedures: Cations by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry


Chapter 9: Data Analysis

Precision and Accuracy

A Statistics Exercise

Laboratory Procedures: Data Analysis Worksheet

Final Report for the Water Module


Appendix A: Ionic Substances in Natural Waters

Appendix B: Dilutions

Appendix C: Using Microsoft Excel for Data Analysis

Microsoft Excel Worksheet

Exercises in EXCEL

Formatting the Data Sheet

Entering the Data

Plotting the Data

Curve Fitting

Making the Plot Look Like You Want It To


Statistics: The EASY Way


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